Dental anxiety is an extremely common problem affecting the populations of all ages, of various geographical areas. The degree of anxiety varies and affects the person’s oral health status, interferes with dental attendance and service delivery. Dental professionals play a major role in the management and prevention of dental anxiety in individual patients and the community at large. Dental anxiety and fear are both significant concerns faced by dental clinicians and dental auxiliaries. Generally, majority of the respondents in spite of being only mild to moderately anxious, never visited a dentist in this population possibly indicating the poor dental awareness, lack of active nationwide oral health awareness, influence of socio-economic factors, individual personality traits, type of preoperative information, education level, gender, parental influence, personal dental experience and due to multiple other factors.
Dental anxiety is caused mainly due to fear of pain, bleeding, smell associated with the practice, dental instrument, trauma, etc. Various factors, including socioeconomic and psychological characteristics are responsible for the dental anxiety. Identifying these cognitive factors will facilitate the behavioural management of the dental phobia to enhance the dental visits. The dentist plays a major role in identifying the anxious patients so that they can be appropriately managed thereby enhancing patient satisfaction and better dentist–patient relationship.
Over the years dental health has assumed parallel significance and importance besides general health services rather than as its constituent part. Public health policies on oral health are being increasingly emphasized. Dental care is now being included in health insurance coverage. However, National level policies on financing and provision of resources for dental services are yet to gain prominence. Development of effective and reliable treatment procedures is fundamental for enhanced funding in dental health sector.
There have been significant advancements in the treatment procedure and the materials used in dental care in the recent years. Our tooth is very complex in its anatomy and dentin forms the bulk of its composition. Both in terms of weight and volume, dentin is primarily composed of mineral phase and organic matter. Dentin is even more mineralized than the bone.
Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the major forms of oral disorders. Dental caries, lesions, and fractures lead to loss of dental structure. Currently the restoration is achieved by infiltration of synthetic polymers into demineralized collagen fibers of dentin. However, hydrolysis of the monomers is a greater challenge. Action of endogenous proteases is also a cause of concern. The resin based restorations is very cost-intensive. In this context researchers from Brazil have reviewed promising techniques and material to improve the stability of restorations. The study published in Oral Health and Dental Management revealed that proanthocyanidins obtained from natural extracts of tea leaves, cinnamon bark, acai fruit and pine bark as well as cardol and cardanol from cashew nuts are good choice as biological modifiers of dentin while those of synthetic origin have cytotoxic effects. Their multiple interactions with dentin components are regarded as important for bio-mechanical strength and bio-stability of restored teeth. Glass fiber has been successfully used for restoration purpose. Another study group from Brazil reported a study on the bond strength of fiber post with root dentin as influenced by irrigation solution and found ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as best irrigation solution achieving reliable bond strength.
These research reports appeared in Longdom Publications and are of immense relevance in achieving efficiency and efficacy in most common dental restoration/treatment procedures as they focus on strengthening the teeth and sustaining their bio-mechanical function and biological stability.